The Existential Roots of Communism: An Unlikely Connection

Existentialism and communism, seemingly disparate philosophical and political ideologies, found an unexpected intersection in the mid-20th century. The existentialist movement, marked by thinkers such as Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, emerged in the aftermath of World War II, reflecting on the individual’s search for meaning in an apparently indifferent universe. While existentialism traditionally emphasizes individualism and personal responsibility, it played an influential role in shaping the intellectual landscape that contributed to the rise of communism.

Existentialism’s Terrain

Existentialism, born out of the ruins of war and the disillusionment with traditional moral frameworks, posits that existence precedes essence. This means that individuals are responsible for creating their own meaning and values in a world devoid of inherent purpose. Existentialist thinkers emphasized the importance of personal freedom, choice, and the rejection of external authorities dictating meaning.

The Individual and Alienation

Existentialism’s focus on the individual’s quest for meaning resonated with the alienation experienced by individuals in capitalist societies. The increasing industrialization and commodification of everyday life led many to feel disconnected from their labor and alienated from the products of their work. Existentialism, in its critique of alienation, provided a philosophical framework for individuals seeking alternatives to the status quo.

Existentialism and Marxism

Existentialism’s connection with communism became apparent through the influence of Marxist ideas on prominent existentialist thinkers. Jean-Paul Sartre, a key figure in existentialist philosophy, engaged with Marxist thought, particularly in his later works. Sartre’s exploration of the concept of “bad faith” and his emphasis on individual responsibility converged with Marxist critiques of capitalist exploitation.

Sartre’s Engagement with Marxism

Sartre’s existentialist philosophy evolved over time, and in his later works, he delved into Marxist concepts to address societal issues. In his famous work, “Critique of Dialectical Reason,” Sartre attempted to reconcile existentialism with Marxism, emphasizing the collective dimension of human existence. He argued that individuals are not isolated beings but are interconnected in a web of social relations, echoing Marxist ideas of class struggle and historical materialism.

Existentialism in Practice: The Rise of Communism

Existentialist ideas, when combined with Marxist principles, contributed to the rise of communism in various intellectual and political circles. The fusion of existentialism and Marxism provided a powerful narrative that resonated with individuals seeking meaning and purpose in a world marked by inequality and exploitation.

The global upheavals of the 1960s saw the convergence of existentialist and Marxist thought in various social and political movements. Student protests, anti-war demonstrations, and calls for social justice were infused with the spirit of existentialist rebellion against the perceived absurdity and injustices of the existing socio-political order.

While existentialism and communism may appear incompatible at first glance, their intersection reveals a complex interplay of ideas. Existentialism’s emphasis on individual freedom and responsibility, when coupled with Marxist critiques of societal structures, provided a fertile ground for the rise of communism. The synthesis of these seemingly opposing philosophies reflects the dynamic nature of intellectual and political movements, demonstrating that even disparate ideologies can converge to address the profound questions of human existence and societal organization.

The Challenge of Existentialism: A Critique of Faith-Centric Religions

Existentialism, a philosophical movement that emerged in the 19th and 20th centuries, posed a significant challenge to traditional religious frameworks that emphasize faith and belief. Rooted in the idea that existence precedes essence, existentialism questions the reliance on religious doctrines that prioritize faith over a direct engagement with reality and facts. This article explores how existentialism can be perceived as a response to what it sees as a failure of religions that prioritize faith and belief at the expense of a genuine confrontation with the complexities of human existence.

The Primacy of Existence

Existentialism, as championed by thinkers like Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus, places a strong emphasis on individual existence and the responsibility that comes with it. This stands in contrast to religious traditions that often prioritize faith in a higher power or divine plan. Existentialists argue that an overemphasis on faith can lead to a detachment from the immediate reality of human experience, preventing individuals from fully engaging with the complexities and uncertainties of life.

Freedom and Responsibility

Existentialist philosophy underscores the radical freedom and responsibility of the individual. Traditional religious doctrines, which often assert a predetermined divine plan, may be seen as limiting human agency and accountability. Existentialists argue that a reliance on faith without critical engagement can result in a passive acceptance of circumstances, hindering the development of a genuine sense of responsibility for one’s choices and actions.

Authenticity vs. Dogma

Existentialism advocates for authenticity – the idea that individuals should live in accordance with their own values and beliefs rather than adhering to external dogmas. Religions that emphasize faith sometimes run the risk of promoting dogmatic adherence to prescribed beliefs, stifling individual authenticity. Existentialism suggests that a more honest and meaningful existence arises from a constant questioning of beliefs and a willingness to confront the uncertainties of life head-on.

Meaning in a Secular World

Existentialism grapples with the question of meaning in a seemingly indifferent universe. While religious traditions provide a structured framework of meaning through faith, existentialists argue for the creation of personal meaning through individual choices and experiences. The critique here is that reliance on faith may provide a comforting narrative, but it might not necessarily address the inherent existential angst that accompanies the human condition.

The Absurd and Religious Absolutism

Existentialists often confront the absurdity of life, asserting that the search for absolute meaning is futile. Religious traditions, by contrast, often claim to offer absolute truths and ultimate meaning. Existentialism challenges the idea that faith in these absolutes provides a genuine solution to the human quest for understanding and purpose, suggesting instead that meaning must be constructed within the context of individual experience.

Existentialism’s critique of religions that emphasize faith or belief can be seen as a call for a more engaged and authentic approach to human existence. While faith and belief play essential roles in many people’s lives, existentialism challenges the potential pitfalls of an uncritical reliance on these principles. It encourages individuals to confront the complexities of existence, take responsibility for their choices, and find meaning in a world that may not offer easy answers. In this way, existentialism serves as a reminder of the importance of a nuanced and thoughtful approach to the fundamental questions of human existence.

The Ripple Effect: The Absorption of Buddhist Ideology by Later Religions

Buddhism, born from the enlightened mind of Siddhartha Gautama, has exerted a profound influence on the spiritual landscape of the world. Its core tenets, centered around compassion, mindfulness, and the quest for enlightenment, have not only shaped the development of various Buddhist traditions but have also found resonance and absorption into the fabric of later religions. This article explores the ways in which the ideology of Buddhism has been assimilated by and contributed to the evolution of other major religious traditions.

Mindfulness and Meditation

Buddhism places a strong emphasis on mindfulness and meditation as tools for self-awareness and inner transformation. These practices, originally intrinsic to Buddhism, have transcended the confines of the tradition. In Christianity, for instance, contemplative prayer and monastic practices reflect a parallel commitment to cultivating a deep, meditative awareness. The Christian mystics, such as the Desert Fathers, incorporated elements of Buddhist-style meditation into their spiritual disciplines, demonstrating an absorption of Buddhist contemplative principles.

Compassion and Universal Love

The Buddhist concept of compassion (karuṇā) and loving-kindness (mettā) has significantly influenced later religions, particularly within the Abrahamic traditions. Jesus Christ’s teachings on love and forgiveness in Christianity echo the Buddhist emphasis on compassion as a transformative force. Islamic Sufism, too, with its focus on love for God and all creation, reflects a resonance with the universal love preached by Buddhism. The common thread of compassion woven through these traditions underscores the interplay of ideas across religious boundaries.

Detachment and Non-Attachment

The Buddhist principle of detachment, rooted in the understanding of impermanence and the nature of suffering, has left an indelible mark on various religious and philosophical systems. Hinduism, with its diverse array of schools of thought, absorbed Buddhist ideas, including the importance of renunciation and detachment, into its own evolving framework. The Advaita Vedanta tradition, for example, integrates aspects of Buddhist non-attachment into its teachings on transcending the material world.

Emphasis on Ethical Conduct

The ethical principles outlined in Buddhism, encapsulated in concepts such as the Eightfold Path, have influenced the moral frameworks of later religions. Islam, for instance, incorporates a comprehensive ethical code within its religious teachings, emphasizing righteousness, justice, and compassion. The Ten Commandments in Judaism and Christianity similarly underscore the moral imperatives of right conduct and ethical living, aligning with the Buddhist emphasis on moral virtues.

Rejection of Ritualism

Buddhism, in its early form, challenged the ritualistic practices prevalent in contemporary Hinduism. This rejection of ritualism found echoes in later religions, particularly in the Protestant Reformation within Christianity. Figures like Martin Luther sought to strip away what they considered extraneous rituals and emphasized a direct, personal connection with God, reminiscent of the Buddhist rejection of elaborate rituals in favor of inner transformation.


The assimilation of Buddhist ideology into later religions highlights the dynamic nature of religious thought and the cross-pollination of ideas across cultural and geographical boundaries. As humanity continues its spiritual journey, the shared values of mindfulness, compassion, ethical conduct, and detachment serve as bridges between diverse religious traditions. The ripples of Buddhist thought have not only enriched the traditions from which they originated but have also contributed to the tapestry of global spirituality, fostering a deeper understanding of the interconnectedness of all religious pursuits.

The Buddha’s Eightfold Path: A Timeless Influence on Detachment and the Immaterial Nature of Life in Later Religions

The teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha, have left an indelible mark on the spiritual and philosophical landscape of humanity. Among his profound insights, the Eightfold Path stands out as a guiding light toward liberation and enlightenment. While Buddhism emerged over two millennia ago, its influence on later religions in terms of detachment and the immaterial nature of life has been both deep and enduring.

Prior to Buddha, no religions had the concept of peace, non-violence, detachment. Changing nature of world and its non-permanence is advocated by Buddha for the first time in human history. Correcting our behaviors, thoughts, emotions, speech are prescribed by Buddha for attaining enlightenment. Prior to Buddha, old religions were full of rituals, yagam, mantras, superstition, killing or scarifying animals or other living beings. Buddha changed to view of religion. His ideology of eightfold path was absorbed by later religions throughout the world in various flavors.

The Eightfold Path, a core component of Buddhist philosophy, serves as a practical guide for living a meaningful and fulfilling life. It encompasses Right Understanding, Right Intention, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration. These eight interconnected principles provide a roadmap for individuals seeking to attain Nirvana – the ultimate state of liberation from the cycle of birth and death.

Central to the Eightfold Path is the concept of detachment – the deliberate and conscious effort to distance oneself from the attachments and desires that perpetuate suffering. This idea of detachment extends beyond the superficial aspects of life and delves into the core of human existence. By cultivating Right Understanding and Right Intention, individuals are encouraged to perceive the impermanence of all things and to develop an attitude of non-attachment toward the material world.

The Buddha’s teachings on detachment and the immaterial nature of life have transcended the boundaries of Buddhism, influencing later religions and philosophies. One notable example is the impact on Hinduism, particularly through the teachings of Vedanta. The idea of transcending material desires and realizing the unity of all existence aligns closely with the Buddhist emphasis on detachment.

In addition, the influence of the Eightfold Path can be traced in various strands of Christian mysticism, where ascetic practices and contemplative prayer aim at achieving a state of union with the divine. The concept of detachment from worldly desires and the pursuit of a higher spiritual reality echoes the core principles of the Buddha’s teachings.

Islamic Sufism, with its emphasis on inner purification and detachment from worldly distractions, also reflects the influence of Buddhist thought. Sufi mystics seek a direct, personal experience of the divine, akin to the Buddhist goal of enlightenment through the Eightfold Path.

The Eightfold Path not only emphasizes detachment but also underscores the immaterial nature of life. Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration guide practitioners to cultivate a deep awareness of the present moment and develop a profound understanding of the transient and illusory nature of the material world.

This emphasis on the immaterial nature of life has resonated in later religions that advocate for a spiritual understanding beyond the confines of the physical realm. The emphasis on meditation, prayer, and contemplation in various religious traditions reflects an aspiration to connect with the immaterial aspects of existence and attain a higher state of consciousness.

The Buddha’s Eightfold Path has proven to be a timeless and universal guide for those seeking a path of enlightenment and liberation. Its influence on later religions in terms of detachment and the immaterial nature of life underscores the profound and enduring impact of Buddhist philosophy. As humanity continues its spiritual journey, the teachings of the Buddha remain a source of inspiration for those who seek to transcend the material and discover the boundless dimensions of the immaterial realm.

Wealth Ceiling – Greed Free Society – Poverty Free Society

Excess or Greed is a crime

Need of the hour for India and World is wealth ceiling. Today’s socio-cultural-political system is allowing a single person to earn as much as possible either genuine or ingenuine ways. A person can earn as much as money, properties/realty, vehicles, jewel, invest in share markets, unlimited savings or bank balance, unlimited investments as long as he/she pays tax to the government appropriately. One can hold any amount of capital.

This unlimited hoarding of wealth in multiple aspects leading to poverty in the world. Wealth ceiling is not a recommended practice for all humanity for all the periods or time. It is a medicine for the side effects of excess practice of capitalism in current world.

There is no philosophy fits all in all the time. Wealth ceiling could not be implemented 70 years back when the human world was healing after world wars and colonization. Those time the medicine was capitalism. But today we are suffering from capitalism and globalization. Globalization was the medicine to stagnant economy of 1990s. From 2000 onwards globalization took the world economy to next level. That was a cure to the disease which world was suffering 30 years back.

Too much of anything is bad. Too much of capitalism or globalization is also bad. Now world has to distribute the wealth, resources across many people evenly as much as possible. Forcibly governments across countries have to implement wealth ceiling.

For example, an individual should not hold more than 5 lakhs rupees bank balance. If any amount deposited more than 5 lakhs, then government will take the excess amount and use it for people welfare plans. An individual should not buy property more than 3000 sqft of plot or home from realty. There should be limitation of jewels (gold/silver/platinum) allowed to posses by an individual. So 400 grams of gold is the cap. Government will confiscate more than that.

Agriculture land possession can be exception to this wealth ceiling, because large scale farming is better than small scale forming.

In terms of salary, bank balance, realty property, gold possession, share market investments there should be ceiling for an individual as how much maximum he can own.

This should be applicable to all the individuals – politicians, government employees, businessmen, industrialist, etc. Any individual tax identification number(person) should have a ceiling. Exceptions are to corporate, public limited, private limited companies based on how many employees working there and how much salary distributed.

This is will dilute the material interests of people. People will stop boasting about salary, wealth, economic status, designation, positions and etc. People will not be stressed out in job, because they know they have a salary ceiling. Businessman will not cheat or overdo the business for more profit, because, the more they earn will be confiscated by government.

There will not be political and bureaucratic scam or bribery. No use of making more money when you have a ceiling on your wealth.

There were times, when man can marry multiple wives at a time. Nowadays, this practice of polygamy is extinct. Social awareness and legal systems helped to remove polygamy from the society. Many social evils on women are eliminated from the society by government and legal system.

Excess wealth with an individual is a social disease like obesity – excess body weight.

Our society is severely affected with a disastrous hunger for wealth. Employees want more salary, businessmen want more profit, education has become a profitable business, healthcare is a profit making business, hotel, food… everything running for profit, more profit. Service is ignored, profit is focused. Need of the hour is profit ceiling.

This will change the people’s mind set towards material values. People’s belief and value system will change. Welfare governments will rise and profit making governments will disappear.

With more money, scam free honest government can provide education, shelter, healthcare, basic needs to all the people evenly.

More employment will be created instead of high earning few individuals. Jobs will be distributed as well as salary too.

We need to take the medicine of Wealth Ceiling before we die due to excess consumption of globalization and capitalization.

This is not a permanent approach towards wealth. After 50 years from now, this wealth ceiling can be abandoned. There is no rule applicable to all the time. Medicine as per disease and till we have disease. Once disease cured, stop taking medicine, live normally.

Our society is severely affected by a disease called Greed. We greed for more marks in education. We greed for more salary in employment. We greed for more profit in business. We greed for more properties, assets. We greed for more jewels. We greed for more. We greed for more material wealth. We greed for more status, we greed for more fame, we greed for more recognition, we greed for more want.

Wealth ceiling is a right medicine to cure this Greed for More.

The current socio-political-economic system is allowing individual wealth hoarding without limits even genuinely. It is accepting the greed legally. As on date, greed/excess is not a crime, might be sin, but not a crime as per current legal system. The system has to change and stop wealth hoarding without limits and enforce limiting on greed or excess.